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Basic Cruising Standard  Basic Cruising, Learn to Cruise, Basic Cruising Standard

(DAY SKIPPER SAIL)

OBJECTIVE

At the completion of the Basic Cruising Standard you should be able to cruise safely in familiar waters as both skipper and crew of a sloop rigged keel boat of 6 to 10 meters in moderate wind and sea conditions by day.

PREREQUISITES

None.

ASHORE KNOWLEDGE - Basic Cruising

Section I: Terms and Definitions

You must be able to:

  1. Identify and describe the following: 
    Hull and keel Gooseneck
    Bow, beam and stern Boomvang and topping lift
    Fenders Shackles and fairleads
    Deck and cabin Cleats and winches
    Rudder and tiller/wheel Pulpit and pushpit
    Cockpit and self-bailing cockpit Stanchions and lifelines
    Gudgeons and pintles Main, jib and storm jib
    Mast and boom Genoa and spinnaker
    Spreader Head, tack and clew
    Shrouds and stays Luff, foot and leech
    Tangs and turnbuckles Battens, hanks and slides
    Chainplates Cringles and reef points
    Running rigging Roller and jiffy/slab reefing
    Standing rigging Sheets and halyards
    Telltales Outhaul and cunningham
    Spring and breast lines Roller furling
  2. Describe the following with the aid of diagrams: Ahead, abeam and astern, forward and aft; 
  3. Define and be able to identify these terms from a diagram: 
    Port Underway
    Starboard No way
    Windward In irons
    Leeward Beating
    Tacking Sailing by the lee
    Gybing Running
    Close Hauled On a tack
    Port tack Luffing (of sail)
    Starboard tack Heading up
    Leeway Bearing away
    Wash Wake
    Reaching (Close, beam and broad)

Section II: Gear and Equipment

You must be able to:

  1. List from memory:
    a) the Transport Canada required items for your boat (Safe Boating Guide),
    b) the rules for care of PFD’s and Life Jackets,
    c) the recommended method of testing for buoyancy in a PFD;
     
  2. Describe:
    a) the reasons for keeping gear and equipment stowed in assigned places in a cruising boat.
    b) the frequency of maintenance of a recreational boat and its equipment so that it is capable of functioning at all times,
    c) the minimum items recommended for a waterproof emergency kit
     

Section III: Safety

You must be able to:

  1. Describe:
    a) The purpose of a safety harness and dangers of improper attachment in a cruising boat,
    b) The purpose of pulpits and lifelines;
     
  2. Identify the required navigation lights for a boat:
    a) under sail; under power and at anchor and describe the angles of each;
    b) for an unpowered boat less than 6 meters in length;
     
  3. Describe the effects, treatment and prevention of hypothermia including:
    a) Define hypothermia and describe the major areas of heat loss to the body,
    b) Describe treatment for mild and severe hypothermia,
    c) List correct actions to be taken by a victim in cold water to increase survival time;
     
  4. Describe the precautions taken to prevent undue magnetic influences to the boat’s compass; 
  5. Describe the common sources of fire and explosion and list the methods for preventing such occurrences and actions to be taken in the event of an onboard fire; 
  6. Describe safe refueling procedures; 
  7. Identify a scuba diving flag; 
  8. Describe:
    a) The danger involved in re-charging batteries,
    b) How to safely launch flares;
    c) The types of signals used to indicated distress;
    d) List the actions to be taken in case of a capsize;
     
  9. Describe the uses, capabilities and limitations of a yacht radar reflector; 
  10. State the dangers of overhead power lines. 
  11. Describe:
    a) Reasons for filing a float plan and who the plan should be filed with;
    b) Items of important information which should be included in a Float Plan,
    c) Reasons for completing a pre-departure check-list;
     

Section IV: Rules of the Road and Canadian Regulations

You must be able to:

  1. Apply Rules 12 - 17 of the Collision Regulations by means of diagrams; 
  2. Identify and describe the following: 
    Pleasure craft Power driven boat
    Sailing boat Recommended gross load capacity
    Capacity plate Recommended safe limit of engine power
  3. Identify:
    a) Four considerations in determining the safe speed to operate a boat,
    b) The actions and precautions to be taken in reduced visibility,
    c) Responsibilities when operating in a commercial traffic lane;
     
  4. Demonstrate knowledge of regulations applying to boaters:
    a) Identify the minimum required publications for operating a 10 meter pleasure boat in unfamiliar waters,
    b) Describe the guidelines for licensing and how a license number must be marked on a boat,
    c) Identify the principal acts / legislation that a pleasure craft operator should be knowledgeable about, and the areas covered by each including:
     
    Canada Shipping Act Small Vessel Regulations,
    Boating Restriction Regulations Contraventions Act
    Collision Regulations The Criminal Code of Canada.

Section V: Weather

You must be able to:

  1. State three sources of marine weather information; 
  2. Interpret the marine weather forecast applicable to the area of operation, and describe how to apply the information:
    a) Determine whether it is safe to set sail in You’s boat, and
    b) Decide what changes are forecast for the next six hours and what effect these should have on the day’s planned activities,
    c) Identify the wind speeds associated with
     
    Light winds Moderate winds Strong winds
    Small craft warning Gale warning Storm warning
  3. Describe local weather hazards, how they can be identified, the normal warning time available, and the actions to be taken to reduce/avoid effects. 

Section VI: Duties of the Skipper and Crew

You must be able to:

  1. List the main responsibilities of the skipper and crew as listed below:
    Skipper
    a) Safety of crew and boat,
    b) Briefing on location and operation of lifesaving and other safety equipment prior to getting underway,
    c) Assigning duties,
    d) Instruction in the safe use of the boat’s equipment while underway;
    e) Obligations on observing an accident or boat in distress;
    f) Actions to demonstrate respect for other boaters and other’s property;
    Crew
    a) Obey skipper
    b) Assist skipper
     

Section VII: Seamanship

You must be able to:

  1. Describe the sequence of sail reduction as wind speed increases; 
  2. Describe the danger of your lee shore; 
  3. Understand the use of a Canadian Hydrographic chart of the local area: of the local area:
    Describe:
    a) a chart
    b) aids to navigation
    Read:
    a) depth of water
    b) distance scale
    c) buoys and their significance
    d) types of bottom (sand, rock, mud and clay)
    e) under water/surface hazards: kelp, cable, rock, shoals, cribs, wrecks, currents
    f) light symbols
    g) beacons
     
  4. Use of Tide and Current Tables to find:
    a) times and heights of tides at reference ports
    b) direction and rate of current at reference stations
     
  5. Describe:
    a) the features of a secure anchorage
    b) the holding characteristics of commonly used anchors
    c) suitable rode makeup and handling
    d) scope requirements when anchoring for lunch, overnight and rough weather
     
  6. Describe the immediate action to be taken for the following circumstances:
    a) springing a leak f) dragging anchor
    b) steering fails g) running aground
    c) grounding at anchor h) broken halyard
    d) fouled propeller i) fire
    e) standing rigging fails
  7. Describe the one commonly accepted use for each of the following knots, bends and hitches: 
    a) reef knot d) bowline
    b) figure eight e) clove hitch
    c) double sheet bend f) round turn & two half hitches
  8. Describe the use of the VHF radio for receiving weather reports and making emergency calls. 

AFLOAT SKILLS - Basic Cruising Standard continues on Page 2

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